Who Was Part of the Munich Agreement

As Hitler continued to deliver inflammatory speeches calling for the reunification of the Germans in Czechoslovakia with their homeland, war seemed imminent. However, neither France nor Britain felt ready to defend Czechoslovakia, and both were anxious to avoid a military confrontation with Germany at almost any cost. In France, the Popular Front government had come to an end, and on April 8, 1938, Édouard Daladier formed a new cabinet without socialist participation or communist support. Four days later, Le Temps, whose foreign policy was controlled by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, published an article by Joseph Barthelemy, a professor at the Paris Faculty of Law, in which he examined the Franco-Czechoslovak Treaty of Alliance of 1924 and concluded that France was not obliged to go to war to save Czechoslovakia. Earlier, on March 22, the Times of London, in an editorial by its editor-in-chief G.G. Dawson, said that Britain could not go to war to preserve Czech sovereignty over the Sudeten Germans without first clearly acknowledging their wishes; otherwise, Britain could “fight against the principle of self-determination.” As Hitler`s previous appeasement had shown, France and Britain were anxious to avoid war. The French government did not want to face Germany alone and was led by the British Conservative government of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. He considered that the German grievances of the Sudetenland were justified and considered hitler`s intentions to be limited. Britain and France therefore advised Czechoslovakia to comply with Germany`s demands.

Beneš resisted and launched a partial mobilization on May 19 in response to a possible German invasion. [14] On December 4, 1938, 97.32% of the adult population voted for the NSDAP in the elections in the Sudeten Reichsgau. About half a million Sudeten Germans joined the NSDAP, or 17.34% of the Sudeten German population (the average participation in the NSDAP in Nazi Germany was 7.85%). This made the Sudetenland the most “pro-National Socialist” region of the Third Reich. [89] The Polish ultimatum finally decided in Beneš to reject any idea of resistance to colonization. [73] The Germans rejoiced in this result and were happy to renounce the sacrifice of a small provincial railway centre to Poland in exchange for the resulting propaganda benefits. He divided responsibility for the division of Czechoslovakia, made Poland a participant in the process and confused political expectations. Poland has been accused of being an accomplice of Germany, a charge warsaw has found hard to deny.

[74] On May 20, Hitler presented his generals with a draft plan of attack against Czechoslovakia, code-named Operation Green. [15] He insisted that he would not break Czechoslovakia militarily without “provocation,” “particularly favorable opportunity,” or “appropriate political justification.” [16] On the 28th. Hitler called a meeting of his leaders, ordered an acceleration of the construction of the submarines, and postponed the construction of his new battleships Bismarck and Tirpitz until the spring of 1940. He called for accelerating the increase in firepower of the battleships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. [17] While acknowledging that this would still not be enough for a full-scale naval war with Britain, Hitler hoped it would be a sufficient deterrent. [18] Ten days later, Hitler signed a secret directive for the war against Czechoslovakia, which was to begin no later than October 1. [14] Italy strongly supported Germany in Munich and a few weeks later, in October 1938, tried to use its advantage to make new demands to the France. Mussolini called for a free port in Djibouti, control of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railway, Italian participation in the administration of the Suez Canal Company, a form of Franco-Italian condominium over Tunisia and the preservation of Italian culture in French-occupied Corsica without French assimilation of the people. The France rejects these demands and begins to threaten naval maneuvers as a warning to Italy.

[94] Hitler`s expansionist goals became clear in 1936 when his troops invaded the Rhineland. Two years later, in March 1938, he annexed Austria. At the Munich Conference in September, Neville Chamberlain seems to have avoided a war by agreeing that Germany could occupy the Sudetenland, the German-speaking part of Czechoslovakia – what became known as the Munich Agreement. On the 22nd. Chamberlain flew back to Germany in September and met Hitler in Bad Godesberg, where he was dismayed to learn that Hitler had tightened his demands: he now wanted the Sudetenland to be occupied by the German army and the Czechoslovaks to be evacuated from the region by September 28. Chamberlain agreed to present the new proposal to the Czechoslovaks, who rejected it, as well as to the British cabinet and the French. On the 24th, the French ordered a partial mobilization; The Czechoslovaks had ordered a general mobilization the day before. .

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